X-ray imaging is the oldest and probably the most used imaging technique in medicine. X-ray imaging is a transmission-based technique in which X-rays from a source pass through the patient and are detected either by film or an ionization chamber on the opposite side of the body. Contrast in the image between different tissues arises from differential attenuation of X-rays in the body.
Planar X-ray radiography of overlapping layers of soft tissue or complex bone structures can often be difficult to interpret, even for a skilled radiologist. In these cases, X-ray computed tomography (CT) is used. This technique allows producing images, which show sections through a human body.